In this paper we propose a general model for solving the Transportation Network Design Problem (TNDP). Since in real-scale networks the number of feasible solutions to be examined does not allow an exhaustive search and objective functions are not convex, it is necessary to adopt metaheuristic algorithms to obtain sub-optimal solutions within suitable calculation times. Hence, we show and analyse some algorithms proposed in the literature for solving TNDPs both in urban and extra-urban contexts in order to highlight the importance of metaheuristic algorithms in large-scale transportation problems.
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