The increasing complexity of modern ground vehicles is making crucial the role of control for improving energetic efficiency, comfort and performance. At the same time, the control software must be frequently updated in order to let the vehicle respond safely and efficiently within more sophisticated environments and to optimize the operations when new vehicle components are integrated. In this framework real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulations represent a fundamental tool for supporting the verification and validation processes of the control software and hardware. In this chapter a railway case study will be presented. The mathematical models of the most relevant electromechanical components of the vehicle powertrain are presented: the pantograph connected to an ideal overhead line with continuous voltage; the electrical components of a pre-charge circuit, the line filter and the braking chopper; the three-phase voltage source inverter and the induction motor; and, finally, the mechanical transmission system, including its interactions with the rail. Then the issues related to the real-time simulation of the locomotive components models are discussed, concentrating on challenges related to the stiff nature of the dynamic equations and on their numerical integration by combining field programmable gate array (FPGA) and central processing unit (CPU) boards. The usefulness of the real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulations for the analysis of railway control software will be demonstrated by considering the powertrains of two real metropolitan trains under complex scenarios, i.e., stator winding disconnection of the induction motor, pantograph missing contact, wheel-rail slipping phenomenon.
|Titolo:||Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop in Railway: Simulations for Testing Control Software of Electromechanical Train Components|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio)|