Pheochromocytoma (PCC), a rare neuroendocrine tumor, shows a prevalence ranging between 0.1% and 0.6% in individuals suffering from hypertension. To date, an increasing number of patients with hereditary forms or subclinical PCCs have been diagnosed. We reviewed the main controversies and the most recent updates, especially inheritance genetics and surgical management. According to the "rule of 10", in 1/10 patients with pheochromocytoma it is malignant, in 1/10 of cases the tumor is bilateral, in 1/10 extra-adrenal and in 1/10 familial. Surgical resection, the only curative treatment, carries a high risk of hypertensive crises due to massive catecholamine release. Alpha 1 blocker therapy, alone or in combination with beta blockers, calcium antagonists, and plasma volume expansion, is the most commonly used preoperative treatment protocol. Minimally invasive adrenalectomy (laparoscopic and retro-peritoneoscopic) allows earlier mobilization and recovery, reducing the risk of pulmonary infections and thromb-oembolic complications, and is associated with lower morbidity and mortality rates than traditional surgery; it is currently considered the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors ≤6 cm in diameter and weighing < 100 g. Genetic testing will increasingly be the key factor in estimating the life-long risk for development of recurrent disease, contralateral disease or malignant dedifferentiation, thus influencing follow-up protocols.
|Titolo:||Current concepts of pheochromocytoma|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|