In this work, the authors aimed to identify a potential correlation between the printability and crucial rheological characteristics of materials involved in fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology. In this regard, three different poly(lactide) acid (PLA)-based filaments (two commercially available (here called V-PLA and R-PLA) and one processed in a lab-scale extruder (here called L-PLA)) have been considered. Dynamic rheological testing, in terms of frequency sweep at five different temperatures (130, 150, 170, 190, and 210 degrees C), was performed. Rheological properties expressed in terms of viscoelastic moduli and complex viscosity curves vs. frequency, characteristic relaxation times, activation energy (Ea), zero shear viscosity (eta 0) and shear thinning index (n) were derived for each material. A characteristic relaxation time of around 0.243 s was found for V-PLA, a similar value (0.295 s) was calculated for R-PLA filaments, and a lower value of about an order of magnitude was calculated for L-PLA filament (similar to 0.0303 s). The activation energy and shear thinning index resulted to be very comparable for all the filaments. On the contrary, V-PLA and R-PLA possessed a zero-shear viscosity (similar to 10(4) Pa*s at 170 degrees C) much higher than L-PLA (similar to 10(3) Pa*s). All the filaments were processed in a 3D printer, by attesting the effect of nozzle temperature (180, 190, and 210 degrees C, respectively) on printing process, and macroscopic shaping defects in printed objects. Final considerations allowed us to conclude that polymer relaxation time, zero-shear viscosity, and melt viscosity (affected by printing temperature) were critical parameters affecting the printing quality.

Predicting the Printability of Poly(Lactide) Acid Filaments in Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Technology: Rheological Measurements and Experimental Evidence

Acierno, S
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

In this work, the authors aimed to identify a potential correlation between the printability and crucial rheological characteristics of materials involved in fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology. In this regard, three different poly(lactide) acid (PLA)-based filaments (two commercially available (here called V-PLA and R-PLA) and one processed in a lab-scale extruder (here called L-PLA)) have been considered. Dynamic rheological testing, in terms of frequency sweep at five different temperatures (130, 150, 170, 190, and 210 degrees C), was performed. Rheological properties expressed in terms of viscoelastic moduli and complex viscosity curves vs. frequency, characteristic relaxation times, activation energy (Ea), zero shear viscosity (eta 0) and shear thinning index (n) were derived for each material. A characteristic relaxation time of around 0.243 s was found for V-PLA, a similar value (0.295 s) was calculated for R-PLA filaments, and a lower value of about an order of magnitude was calculated for L-PLA filament (similar to 0.0303 s). The activation energy and shear thinning index resulted to be very comparable for all the filaments. On the contrary, V-PLA and R-PLA possessed a zero-shear viscosity (similar to 10(4) Pa*s at 170 degrees C) much higher than L-PLA (similar to 10(3) Pa*s). All the filaments were processed in a 3D printer, by attesting the effect of nozzle temperature (180, 190, and 210 degrees C, respectively) on printing process, and macroscopic shaping defects in printed objects. Final considerations allowed us to conclude that polymer relaxation time, zero-shear viscosity, and melt viscosity (affected by printing temperature) were critical parameters affecting the printing quality.
2023
3D printing
poly(lactide) acid
rheological measurement
processing temperature
warpage
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12070/62580
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