The adipose organ is involved in many metabolic functions, ranging from the production of endocrine factors to the regulation of thermogenic processes. Aging is a natural process that affects the physiology of the adipose organ, leading to metabolic disorders, thus strongly impacting healthy aging. Cellular senescence modifies many functional aspects of adipose tissue, leading to metabolic alterations through defective adipogenesis, inflammation, and aberrant adipocytokine production, and in turn, it triggers systemic inflammation and senescence, as well as insulin resistance in metabolically active tissues, leading to premature declined physiological features. In the various aging fat depots, senescence involves a multiplicity of cell types, including mature adipocytes and immune, endothelial, and progenitor cells that are aging, highlighting their involvement in the loss of metabolic flexibility, one of the common features of aging-related metabolic disorders. Since mitochondrial stress represents a key trigger of cellular senescence, and senescence leads to the accumulation of abnormal mitochondria with impaired dynamics and hindered homeostasis, this review focuses on the beneficial potential of targeting mitochondria, so that strategies can be developed to manage adipose tissue senescence for the treatment of age-related metabolic disorders.
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