Several metabolic products that derive from l-thyroxine (T4) and 3,3 ' 5-l-triiodothyronine (T3), the main thyroid hormones secreted by the thyroid gland, possess biologic activities. Among these metabolites or derivatives showing physiological actions some have received greater attention: diiodothyronines, iodothyronamines, acetic acid analogues. It is known that increased thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) levels can improve serum lipid profiles and reduce body fat. These positive effects are, however, counterbalanced by adverse effects on the heart, muscle and bone, limiting their use. In addition to the naturally occurring metabolites, thyroid hormone analogues have been developed that either have selective effects on specific tissues or bind selectively to thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoform. Among these GC-1, KB141, KB2115, and DITPA were deeply investigated and displayed promising therapeutic results in the potential treatment of conditions such as dyslipidemias and obesity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of metabolites and analogues of T4 and T3 with reference to their possible clinical application in the treatment of human diseases.

Thyroid hormone metabolites and analogues

Cioffi, Federica;Petito, Giuseppe;Goglia, Fernando;
2019-01-01

Abstract

Several metabolic products that derive from l-thyroxine (T4) and 3,3 ' 5-l-triiodothyronine (T3), the main thyroid hormones secreted by the thyroid gland, possess biologic activities. Among these metabolites or derivatives showing physiological actions some have received greater attention: diiodothyronines, iodothyronamines, acetic acid analogues. It is known that increased thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) levels can improve serum lipid profiles and reduce body fat. These positive effects are, however, counterbalanced by adverse effects on the heart, muscle and bone, limiting their use. In addition to the naturally occurring metabolites, thyroid hormone analogues have been developed that either have selective effects on specific tissues or bind selectively to thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoform. Among these GC-1, KB141, KB2115, and DITPA were deeply investigated and displayed promising therapeutic results in the potential treatment of conditions such as dyslipidemias and obesity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of metabolites and analogues of T4 and T3 with reference to their possible clinical application in the treatment of human diseases.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12070/60419
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