The 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2) has emerged as an active iodothyronine and its beneficial effects on glucose metabolism including glucose tolerance and insulin resistance is well established. However, little is known about its molecular mechanisms. Given the emerging importance of microRNAs in various metabolic diseases, in this study a possible link between the effects of T2 on glucose metabolism and miRNA expression was investigated by using an in vivo model in which T2 was administered in rats receiving a high fat diet, a condition known to impair glucose homeostasis. The results showed that T2-treated rats had a better tolerance to glucose load and a better performance at the insulin tolerance test in comparison to high fat diet animals. Interestingly, in the serum of the animals treated with T2 there was a general decrease of miRNAs with miR-22a-3p, miR-34c-5p and miR-33a-3p significantly downregulated. Furthermore, miR-22a-3p had the largest variation pointing toward its preeminent role in T2 metabolic effect. In fact, in liver there was an up-regulation of its target (Transcription Factor 7)Tcf7, which had an important impact on gluconeogenesis. This study provide, for the first time, evidences that miRNAs are involved in the effects exerted by T2 on glucose homeostasis.
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