Metabolic syndrome and obesity have become important health issues of epidemic proportions and are often the cause of related pathologies such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissues (ATs) are dynamic tissues that play crucial physiological roles in maintaining health and homeostasis. An ample body of evidence indicates that in some pathophysiological conditions, the aberrant remodeling of adipose tissue may provoke dysregulation in the production of various adipocytokines and metabolites, thus leading to disorders in metabolic organs. Thyroid hormones (THs) and some of their derivatives, such as 3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), exert numerous functions in a variety of tissues, including adipose tissues. It is known that they can improve serum lipid profiles and reduce fat accumulation. The thyroid hormone acts on the brown and/or white adipose tissues to induce uncoupled respiration through the induction of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) to generate heat. Multitudinous investigations suggest that 3,3 ',5-triiodothyronine (T3) induces the recruitment of brown adipocytes in white adipose depots, causing the activation of a process known as "browning". Moreover, in vivo studies on adipose tissues show that T2, in addition to activating brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, may further promote the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), and affect adipocyte morphology, tissue vascularization, and the adipose inflammatory state in rats receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). In this review, we summarize the mechanism by which THs and thyroid hormone derivatives mediate adipose tissue activity and remodeling, thus providing noteworthy perspectives on their efficacy as therapeutic agents to counteract such morbidities as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance.

Adipose Tissue Remodeling in Obesity: An Overview of the Actions of Thyroid Hormones and Their Derivatives

Petito, Giuseppe;Cioffi, Federica;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome and obesity have become important health issues of epidemic proportions and are often the cause of related pathologies such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissues (ATs) are dynamic tissues that play crucial physiological roles in maintaining health and homeostasis. An ample body of evidence indicates that in some pathophysiological conditions, the aberrant remodeling of adipose tissue may provoke dysregulation in the production of various adipocytokines and metabolites, thus leading to disorders in metabolic organs. Thyroid hormones (THs) and some of their derivatives, such as 3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), exert numerous functions in a variety of tissues, including adipose tissues. It is known that they can improve serum lipid profiles and reduce fat accumulation. The thyroid hormone acts on the brown and/or white adipose tissues to induce uncoupled respiration through the induction of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) to generate heat. Multitudinous investigations suggest that 3,3 ',5-triiodothyronine (T3) induces the recruitment of brown adipocytes in white adipose depots, causing the activation of a process known as "browning". Moreover, in vivo studies on adipose tissues show that T2, in addition to activating brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, may further promote the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), and affect adipocyte morphology, tissue vascularization, and the adipose inflammatory state in rats receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). In this review, we summarize the mechanism by which THs and thyroid hormone derivatives mediate adipose tissue activity and remodeling, thus providing noteworthy perspectives on their efficacy as therapeutic agents to counteract such morbidities as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance.
2023
3,5 diiodo-L-thyronine
adipose tissues
browning
metabolic disease
obesity
thyroid hormones
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12070/60359
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