The need for miniaturized biological sensors which can be easily integrated into medical needles and catheters for in vivo liquid biopsies with ever-increasing performances has stimulated the interest of researchers in lab-on-fiber (LOF) technology. LOF devices arise from the integration of functional materials at the nanoscale on the tip of optical fibers, thus endowing a simple optical fiber with advanced functionalities and enabling the realization of high-performance LOF biological sensors. Consequently, in 2017, we demonstrated the first optical fiber meta-tip (OFMT), consisting of the integration of plasmonic metasurfaces (MSs) on the optical fiber end-face which represented a major breakthrough along the LOF technology roadmap. Successively, we demonstrated that label-free biological sensors based on the plasmonic OFMT are able to largely overwhelm the performance of a standard plasmonic LOF sensor, in view of the extraordinary light manipulation capabilities of plasmonic array exploiting phase gradients. To further improve the overall sensitivity, a labelled sensing strategy is here suggested. To this end, we envision the possibility to realize a novel class of labelled LOF optrodes based on OFMT, where an all-dielectric MS, designed to enhance the fluorescence emission by a labelled target molecule, is integrated on the end-face of a multimode fiber (MMF). We present a numerical environment to compute the fluorescence enhancement factor collected by the MMF, when on its tip a Silicon MS is laid, consisting of an array of cylindrical nanoantennas, or of dimers or trimers of cylindrical nanoantennas. According to the numerical results, a suitable design of the dielectric MS allows for a fluorescence enhancement up to three orders of magnitudes. Moreover, a feasibility study is carried out to verify the possibility to fabricate the designed MSs on the termination of multimode optical fibers using electron beam lithography followed by reactive ion etching. Finally, we analyze a real application scenario in the field of biosensing and evaluate the degradation in the fluorescence enhancement performances, taking into account the experimental conditions. The present work, thus, provides the main guidelines for the design and development of advanced LOF devices based on the fluorescence enhancement for labelled biosensing applications.

Design and Optimization of All-Dielectric Fluorescence Enhancing Metasurfaces: Towards Advanced Metasurface-Assisted Optrodes

Principe M.;Vaiano P.;Aliberti A.;Quero G.;Consales M.
;
Cusano A.
2022

Abstract

The need for miniaturized biological sensors which can be easily integrated into medical needles and catheters for in vivo liquid biopsies with ever-increasing performances has stimulated the interest of researchers in lab-on-fiber (LOF) technology. LOF devices arise from the integration of functional materials at the nanoscale on the tip of optical fibers, thus endowing a simple optical fiber with advanced functionalities and enabling the realization of high-performance LOF biological sensors. Consequently, in 2017, we demonstrated the first optical fiber meta-tip (OFMT), consisting of the integration of plasmonic metasurfaces (MSs) on the optical fiber end-face which represented a major breakthrough along the LOF technology roadmap. Successively, we demonstrated that label-free biological sensors based on the plasmonic OFMT are able to largely overwhelm the performance of a standard plasmonic LOF sensor, in view of the extraordinary light manipulation capabilities of plasmonic array exploiting phase gradients. To further improve the overall sensitivity, a labelled sensing strategy is here suggested. To this end, we envision the possibility to realize a novel class of labelled LOF optrodes based on OFMT, where an all-dielectric MS, designed to enhance the fluorescence emission by a labelled target molecule, is integrated on the end-face of a multimode fiber (MMF). We present a numerical environment to compute the fluorescence enhancement factor collected by the MMF, when on its tip a Silicon MS is laid, consisting of an array of cylindrical nanoantennas, or of dimers or trimers of cylindrical nanoantennas. According to the numerical results, a suitable design of the dielectric MS allows for a fluorescence enhancement up to three orders of magnitudes. Moreover, a feasibility study is carried out to verify the possibility to fabricate the designed MSs on the termination of multimode optical fibers using electron beam lithography followed by reactive ion etching. Finally, we analyze a real application scenario in the field of biosensing and evaluate the degradation in the fluorescence enhancement performances, taking into account the experimental conditions. The present work, thus, provides the main guidelines for the design and development of advanced LOF devices based on the fluorescence enhancement for labelled biosensing applications.
all-dielectric metasurfaces
fluorescence enhancement
lab-on-fiber
labelled biosensing
Fluorescence
Optical Fibers
Polymers
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12070/56099
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