In the present study, we aimed at assessing the influence of breed and feeding system on the bovine milk profile of betaines and carnitines and milk capacity in counteracting the inflammatory endothelial cell (EC) damage induced by interleukin (IL)-6. In the first experimental design, two breeds were chosen (Holstein vs. Modicana) to investigate the biomolecule content and antioxidant capacity in milk and dairy products. In the second experimental design, two feeding systems (pasture vs. total mixed ratio) were tested only in Holstein to evaluate the possible effect on the functional profile of milk and dairy products. Finally, the bulk milk from the two experimental designs was used to evaluate the efficacy of preventing IL-6-induced endothelial inflammatory damage. Results showed that Modicana milk and whey had higher biomolecule content and antioxidant activity compared to Holstein milk (p < 0.01). Milk from Holstein fed TMR showed higher concentration of gamma-butyrobetaine, delta-valerobetaine (p < 0.01), and l-carnitine (p < 0.05). Similarly, whey from Holstein fed TMR also showed higher content of delta-valerobetaine, glycine betaine, l-carnitine, and acetyl-l-carnitine (p < 0.01) compared to the Holstein fed pasture. Conversely, the antioxidant activity of milk and dairy products was not affected by the feeding system. In ECs, all milk samples reduced the IL-6-induced cytokine release, as well as the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the induction of cell death, with the most robust effect elicited by Modicana milk (p < 0.01). Overall, Modicana milk showed a higher content of biomolecules and antioxidant activity compared to Holstein, suggesting that the breed, more than the feeding system, can positively affect the health-promoting profile of dairy cattle milk.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.