Biological therapy, with its multifaceted applications, has revolutionized the treatment of tumors, mainly due to its ability to exclusively target cancer cells and reduce the adverse effects on normal tissues. This review focuses on the therapies targeting the CXCR4 and CD47 receptors. We surveyed the results of early clinical trials testing compounds classified as nonpeptides, small peptides, CXCR4 antagonists or specific antibodies whose activity reduces or completely blocks the intracellular signaling pathways and cell proliferation. We then examined antibodies and fusion proteins against CD47, the receptor that acts as a "do not eat me" signal to phagocytes escaping immune surveillance. Despite these molecules being tested in early clinical trials, some drawbacks are emerging that impair their use in practice. Finally, we examined the ImmunoGenic Surrender mechanism that involves crosstalk and co-internalization of CXCR4 and CD47 upon engagement of CXCR4 by ligands or other molecules. The favorable effect of such compounds is dual as CD47 surface reduction impact on the immune response adds to the block of CXCR4 proliferative potential. These results suggest that a combination of different therapeutic approaches has more beneficial effects on patients' survival and may pave the way for new accomplishments in personalized anticancer therapy.
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