Background and Purpose: NCX3 (Na+-Ca2+exchanger 3) plays a relevant role in stroke; indeed its pharmacological blockade or its genetic ablation exacerbates brain ischemic damage, whereas its upregulation takes part in the neuroprotection elicited by ischemic preconditioning. To identify an effective strategy to induce an overexpression of NCX3, we examined transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms potentially involved in NCX3 gene regulation. Methods: Brain ischemia and ischemic preconditioning were induced in vitro by exposure of cortical neurons to oxygen and glucose deprivation plus reoxygenation (OGD/Reoxy) and in vivo by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate transcripts and proteins of GATA3 (GATA-binding protein 3), KMT2A (lysine-methyltransferase-2A), and NCX3. GATA3 and KMT2A binding on NCX3 gene was evaluated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and Rechromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Results: Among the putative transcription factors sharing a consensus sequence on the ncx3 brain promoter region, GATA3 was the only able to up-regulate ncx3. Interestingly, GATA3 physically interacted with KMT2A, and their overexpression or knocking-down increased or downregulated NCX3 mRNA and protein, respectively. Notably, site-direct mutagenesis of GATA site on ncx3 brain promoter region counteracted GATA3 and KMT2A binding on NCX3 gene. More importantly, we found that in the perischemic cortical regions of preconditioned rats GATA3 recruited KMT2A and the complex H3K4-3me (trimethylated lysine-4 of histone-3) on ncx3 brain promoter region, thus reducing transient middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced damage. Consistently, in vivo silencing of either GATA3 or KMT2A prevented NCX3 upregulation and consequently the neuroprotective effect of preconditioning stimulus. The involvement of GATA3/KMT2A complex in neuroprotection elicited by ischemic preconditioning was further confirmed by in vitro experiments in which the knocking-down of GATA3 and KMT2A reverted the neuroprotection induced by NCX3 overexpression in cortical neurons exposed to anoxic preconditioning followed by oxygen and glucose deprivation plus reoxygenation. Conclusions: Collectively, our results revealed that GATA3/KMT2A complex epigenetically activates NCX3 gene transcription during ischemic preconditioning.

GATA3 (GATA-Binding Protein 3)/KMT2A (Lysine-Methyltransferase-2A) Complex by Increasing H3K4-3me (Trimethylated Lysine-4 of Histone-3) Upregulates NCX3 (Na+-Ca2+Exchanger 3) Transcription and Contributes to Ischemic Preconditioning Neuroprotection

Mascolo L.;Anzilotti S.;Formisano L.
2021

Abstract

Background and Purpose: NCX3 (Na+-Ca2+exchanger 3) plays a relevant role in stroke; indeed its pharmacological blockade or its genetic ablation exacerbates brain ischemic damage, whereas its upregulation takes part in the neuroprotection elicited by ischemic preconditioning. To identify an effective strategy to induce an overexpression of NCX3, we examined transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms potentially involved in NCX3 gene regulation. Methods: Brain ischemia and ischemic preconditioning were induced in vitro by exposure of cortical neurons to oxygen and glucose deprivation plus reoxygenation (OGD/Reoxy) and in vivo by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate transcripts and proteins of GATA3 (GATA-binding protein 3), KMT2A (lysine-methyltransferase-2A), and NCX3. GATA3 and KMT2A binding on NCX3 gene was evaluated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and Rechromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Results: Among the putative transcription factors sharing a consensus sequence on the ncx3 brain promoter region, GATA3 was the only able to up-regulate ncx3. Interestingly, GATA3 physically interacted with KMT2A, and their overexpression or knocking-down increased or downregulated NCX3 mRNA and protein, respectively. Notably, site-direct mutagenesis of GATA site on ncx3 brain promoter region counteracted GATA3 and KMT2A binding on NCX3 gene. More importantly, we found that in the perischemic cortical regions of preconditioned rats GATA3 recruited KMT2A and the complex H3K4-3me (trimethylated lysine-4 of histone-3) on ncx3 brain promoter region, thus reducing transient middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced damage. Consistently, in vivo silencing of either GATA3 or KMT2A prevented NCX3 upregulation and consequently the neuroprotective effect of preconditioning stimulus. The involvement of GATA3/KMT2A complex in neuroprotection elicited by ischemic preconditioning was further confirmed by in vitro experiments in which the knocking-down of GATA3 and KMT2A reverted the neuroprotection induced by NCX3 overexpression in cortical neurons exposed to anoxic preconditioning followed by oxygen and glucose deprivation plus reoxygenation. Conclusions: Collectively, our results revealed that GATA3/KMT2A complex epigenetically activates NCX3 gene transcription during ischemic preconditioning.
histone
ischemic preconditioning
methyltransferase
neuroprotection oxygen
Animals
Brain
Brain Ischemia
GATA3 Transcription Factor
Gene Expression Regulation
Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
Histones
Male
Mice
Neuroprotection
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Sodium-Calcium Exchanger
Up-Regulation
Ischemic Preconditioning
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12070/54236
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