Cellular clearance mechanisms including the autophagy-lysosome pathway are impaired in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). One of the most important proteins involved in the regulation of autophagy is the lysosomal Ca2+ channel Mucolipin TRP channel 1 (TRPML1). Therefore, we investigated the role of TRPML1 in a neuronal model of ALS/Parkinson-dementia complex reproduced by the exposure of motor neurons to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA). Under these conditions, L-BMAA induces a dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leading to ER stress and cell death. Therefore we hypothesized a dysfunctional coupling between lysosomes and ER in L-BMAA-treated motor neurons. Here, we showed that in motor neuronal cells TRPML1 as well as the lysosomal protein LAMP1 co-localized with ER. In addition, TRPML1 co-immunoprecipitated with the ER Ca2+ sensor STIM1. Functionally, the TRPML1 agonist ML-SA1 induced lysosomal Ca2+ release in a dose-dependent way in motor neuronal cells. The SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin increased the fluorescent signal associated with lysosomal Ca2+ efflux in the cells transfected with the genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator GCaMP3-ML1, thus suggesting an interplay between the two organelles. Moreover, chronic exposure to L-BMAA reduced TRPML1 protein expression and produced an impairment of both lysosomal and ER Ca2+ homeostasis in primary motor neurons. Interestingly, the preincubation of ML-SA1, by an early activation of AMPK and beclin 1, rescued motor neurons from L-BMAA-induced cell death and reduced the expression of the ER stress marker GRP78. Finally, ML-SA1 reduced the accumulation of the autophagy-related proteins p62/SQSTM1 and LC3-II in L-BMAA-treated motor neurons. Collectively, we propose that the pharmacological stimulation of TRPML1 can rescue motor neurons from L-BMAA-induced toxicity by boosting autophagy and reducing ER stress.

The activation of Mucolipin TRP channel 1 (TRPML1) protects motor neurons from L-BMAA neurotoxicity by promoting autophagic clearance

Canzoniero L. M. T.;
2019

Abstract

Cellular clearance mechanisms including the autophagy-lysosome pathway are impaired in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). One of the most important proteins involved in the regulation of autophagy is the lysosomal Ca2+ channel Mucolipin TRP channel 1 (TRPML1). Therefore, we investigated the role of TRPML1 in a neuronal model of ALS/Parkinson-dementia complex reproduced by the exposure of motor neurons to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA). Under these conditions, L-BMAA induces a dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leading to ER stress and cell death. Therefore we hypothesized a dysfunctional coupling between lysosomes and ER in L-BMAA-treated motor neurons. Here, we showed that in motor neuronal cells TRPML1 as well as the lysosomal protein LAMP1 co-localized with ER. In addition, TRPML1 co-immunoprecipitated with the ER Ca2+ sensor STIM1. Functionally, the TRPML1 agonist ML-SA1 induced lysosomal Ca2+ release in a dose-dependent way in motor neuronal cells. The SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin increased the fluorescent signal associated with lysosomal Ca2+ efflux in the cells transfected with the genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator GCaMP3-ML1, thus suggesting an interplay between the two organelles. Moreover, chronic exposure to L-BMAA reduced TRPML1 protein expression and produced an impairment of both lysosomal and ER Ca2+ homeostasis in primary motor neurons. Interestingly, the preincubation of ML-SA1, by an early activation of AMPK and beclin 1, rescued motor neurons from L-BMAA-induced cell death and reduced the expression of the ER stress marker GRP78. Finally, ML-SA1 reduced the accumulation of the autophagy-related proteins p62/SQSTM1 and LC3-II in L-BMAA-treated motor neurons. Collectively, we propose that the pharmacological stimulation of TRPML1 can rescue motor neurons from L-BMAA-induced toxicity by boosting autophagy and reducing ER stress.
Amino Acids, Diamino
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Animals
Autophagy
Calcium
Cells, Cultured
Disease Models, Animal
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Hybrid Cells
Lysosomes
Mice
Motor Neurons
Neuroprotective Agents
Phthalimides
Quinolines
Rats
Rats, Wistar
Transient Receptor Potential Channels
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12070/46498
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