One of the keys to understanding the relationship between state and anarchy in Nietzsche’s thought is the antagonism between Apollo and Dionysus highlighted by the German philosopher in many passages of his early works, such as the Birth of Tragedy. The god Apollo represents the imperturbable trust in the principium individuationis, being its highest expression, so much so that one could define the magnificent divine image of this principium. At the same time, however, an uncontrollable horror grabs the man when he suddenly loses confidence in the forms of knowledge, and when he is grasped by the ecstatic rapture that rises from his depths when he sees the breakage of the principium individuationis. Then the Dionysian sense prevails in him: the drunkenness that communicates life to him as a dark, overwhelming, insatiably longing power of self. But the antagonism between Apollo and Dionysus is not simply resolved in an equation between order and state, and anarchy and revolutionary tendencies, which is only one aspect, the political aspect, of a much more complex problem.
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