This review presents an overview of "Lab on Fiber" technologies and devices with special focus on the design and development of advanced fiber optic nanoprobes for biological applications. Depending on the specific location where functional materials at micro and nanoscale are integrated, "Lab on Fiber Technology" is classified into three main paradigms: Lab on Tip (where functional materials are integrated onto the optical fiber tip), Lab around Fiber (where functional materials are integrated on the outer surface of optical fibers), and Lab in Fiber (where functional materials are integrated within the holey structure of specialty optical fibers). This work reviews the strategies, the main achievements and related devices developed in the "Lab on Fiber" roadmap, discussing perspectives and challenges that lie ahead, with special focus on biological sensing applications.
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