Microbiological studies have always had an important role in the evaluation of drinking water quality. However, since geological processes are the most important factors controlling the source and distribution of chemical elements in natural waters, the importance of geochemical data must not be underestimated. This study presents data on pH, conductivity and concentrations of 69 elements and ions (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Hg, Ho, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn, Zr, Br−, HCO3 −, Cl−, F−, NH4 +, NO2 −, NO3 −, PO4 3−, SO4 2−, SiO2) from 186 bottled mineral waters of 158 different Italian name brands. Analyses show a large range in concentrations for most of these elements, with variations up to four orders of magnitude. Our data demonstrate that some elements (such as Be), generally considered unlikely to occur, can instead reach surprisingly high levels in drinking water, and also how packaging can release some trace elements to the bottled water. Data analysis shows that the implementation of an international database of bottled water geochemistry and of potential toxicological effects is of paramount importance to provide a robust data set which would be useful to set international action levels and guidelines to secure bottled water quality, whose consumption has steadily increased in the recent years. A new formula to calculate nitrate and nitrite tolerable concentration levels in waters intended for human consumption is proposed, to take into account that about 5% of dietary nitrate in humans is converted to nitrite.
|Titolo:||Trace elements and ions in Italian bottled mineral waters: identification of anomalous values and human health related effects|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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