Thermal bridges are weak areas of the building envelope, determining heat flows higher than those characterizing the common dispersing surfaces (i.e., walls without discontinuities). This phenomenon induces uncontrolled thermal losses and hygiene problems, connected to the possible vapor condensation and mold growth.Presently, the numerical codes for the energy audits, as, for instance, EnergyPlus, carry out zero-dimensional (indoor air) and one-dimensional (conduction heat transfer) analyses, approximately estimating the thermal bridge effects on the seasonal heating demand of buildings. In this paper, results obtained by means of the simplified 1-D models are compared to those obtained by more sophisticated models 2-D or 3-D, in order to point out differences in terms of equivalent conductivity and thermal transmittance. Then, dynamic simulations compare the outcomes in terms of seasonal energy consumption.A typical office building has been considered, analyzing - according to three different approaches - the thermal bridge represented by the roof structure. The outcomes, with reference to several Italian climates, show that a proper modelling is necessary. In particular, an over estimation of the heat losses, determined by an approximate evaluation, induces higher cost of refurbishing, higher cooling energy requests in summer, minor thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings.
|Titolo:||Different methods for the modelling of thermal bridges into energy simulation programs: comparisons of accuracy for flat heterogeneous roofs in Italian climates|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|