Foundations are key elements in the complex soil-structure interaction under seismic actions, since they first transmit the seismic motions from the soil to the superstructure, then transmit to the subsoil the inertial actions induced by the vibrating superstructure. Traditionally the first part of this interaction has been neglected, and the structural design has been based on inertial actions only, assuming the foundation as a “fixed” base. In the last decades much effort has been devoted to the study of seismic soil-structure interaction, and more rational approaches have been developed which take into account the real interaction phenomenon, even if in a simplified manner, splitting it in two different mechanisms, known as “kinematic” and “inertial” interaction. One of the main goals of these studies is to establish the role of SSI on dynamic response of structures, and to understand if neglecting it could be beneficial or detrimental for structures. Further, particular attention has been paid to the case of deep foundations, which could be severely damaged during the so called “kinematic” interaction with the soil, even in absence of the superstructure.
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